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İNGİLİZCE MODALS TABLOSU (CAN,MAY,MUST,HAVE TO,SHOULD)

İNGİLİZCE "MODAL"

MODALS-SUMMARY-1

CAN

 

Present ability

Mary can play the piano.

Possibility

Jane can come back early today.

Permission

Can I take your umbrella?

Request

Can you open the window, please?

Negative present deduction

She never speaks English. She always speaks Turkish. She can’t be a teacher.

Conditional Type I

If you study hard, you can get a good grade.

with the verbs of perception

Can you hear the noise in the class?

COULD

past ability

Jane could swim when she was six.

request

Could you bring me a cup of tea, please?

permission

Could I borrow your car, please?

gentle doubt or possibility for the present and future

We have got enough time we could go for a picnic.

İn reported speech instead of can

Mary said, “I can play the piano.

Mary said that she could play the piano .

In Conditional Type II

If she sent me a postcard, I could write back.

MAY

Possibility

Jill may come over this weekend.

Permission

May I smoke here?

In Conditional Type I

If he studies hard early, we can pass the exam.

Hope, faith, wish and curse

May all your dreams be true.

In the phrase “may as well”

I may as well help you finish the homework. I have finished mine.

 

 

MIGHT

Possibility

It might snow at any time during the day. We can’t be sure.

Permission

Might I use your pen?

In reported speech instead of may

Mary said, “I may go on holiday this week”

In Conditional Type I  II

If she is here, she might call. If they visited us, we might go out for lunch.

In the phrase “might as well”

You might as well go out.

MUST 

Obligation

He must finish his homework.

Present affirmative deduction

All the lights are on. They must be at home.

MUST NOT 

Prohibition

You mustn’t smoke here.

NEED 

NEEDN’T 

Question

Need I go out for shopping?

Lack of necessity

You needn’t get up early tomorrow. It is Sunday.

 

 

OUGHT TO 

Moral obligation and duty

You ought to be ashamed of yourself.

Advice

You ought to see a doctor.

Strong probability

If they sent the letter yesterday, the postman ought to bring it at any minute now.

Logical deduction

Jane worked hard all the year round. She ought to go on holiday.

SHOULD 

Obligation and duty

We should obey our teachers.

Advice

We should listen to our teachers carefully.

Logical deduction

Mike is from London. He should know London very well.

Strong probability

If she studied hard, he should pass the exams.

 

 

 

SHOULD

in conditional sentences (weak probability)

If you should find her address, please let me know.

in subordinate clauses after “in case” (weak probability)

I’ll do my homework in case the teacher should come to class tomorrow .

after certain verbs and adjectives in a subordinate clause with the meaning of something must be done

The doctor suggested Sam should have an operation.

in reported speech instead of “shall” in the first person interrogative

He said, “Shall I open the door?” He asked me if he should open the door.

personal reaction to events

It’s natural that she should laugh at him.

SHALL 

in the future tense for the first person

I shall repair the car tomorrow. We shall study French next year.

determination in the first person

I shall eat what I like. I don’t mind what my doctor says.

determination, promise or threat in the second and third person

I shall  finish the letter today.

in offers, suggestions, requests and advice

What shall we do at night?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

WILL 

in the future tense for all persons

I will watch a film at the weekend. He will wash the car at 8.

willingness, promise and strong determination in the first person

I will give up smoking.

strong determination in the second and third person

He will go to the cinema although his father doesn’t give permission to him.

 

order

No one will use this telephone.

habit

She will go to bed early. She is used to doing for years.

invitation and offer

Won’t you have a cup of coffee?

 


WILL

request

Will you open the window, please?

prediction

I think you will like it.

WOULD 

request

Would you draw the curtains, please?

past habits

When I was at primary school, I would finish my homework at night.

in reported speech instead of “will”

She said, “I will send her some presents tomorrow.

She said that she would send her some presents the following day.

in Conditional type II

If I were you, I would visit her.

willingness after “I wish” and “if only”

I wish my mother would talk less.

If only you would come home early.

refusal in the past

She wouldn’t listen what I told her.

DARE 

in negative and interrogative sentences

Dare you telephone her?

indignation

How dare you play football in the classroom?

in the phrase “I daresay”

I daresay she will telephone you today.

USED TO 

past habits

He used to play football.

She used to have a Mercedes.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MODALS-SUMMARY-2

OBLIGA TION

NECESSITY 

You

He They

must

have to

had to

ought to

should

do it.

 

ought to have

should have

done it.

 

ABSENCE OF NECESSITY 

They

You

needn’t have         

don’t have to

haven’t got to

didn’t have to

didn’t need to

hadn’t (got) to

 

do it.

 

 

WARNING  

PROHIBITION 

You

He

They

 

oughtn’t to

shouldn’t

had better not

mustn’t

aren’t to

smoke here.

shout .

eat much.

 

 

 

ARRANGEMENT 

She

He

will

is going to

is to

was to

 

be getting ready today.

come to us tomorrow.

arrange a party.

 

 

Will

you

be studying English?

PROMISES 

REFUSALS 

I

will

won’t

 

help you.

clean the room.

You

will

 

 

visit us.

 

OFFERS 

INVITATIONS 

 

 

Shall

I

carry your parcel?

turn on the lights?

clean the room?

 

Would

you

like me to open the door?

like me to turn on the lights?

like him to visit us?

 

Will

Won’t

have a seat?

have some tea?

 

Can

I

help you, sir?

carry your parcel?

 

 

 

POSSIBILITY 

He

She

 

can/could

may/might

will

 

be a burglar.

be a doctor at the door.

could have

 

become ill.

come back earlier.

 

PERMISSION 

 

May

Might

Can

Could

Would

I

 

go out?

go to bed?

come in?

He

You

can

may

 

come in?

REQUEST 

 

Can

Could

 

you

come this way?

pass the sugar?

Would

Will

please come this way?

please pass the salt?

ADVICE 

 

You

should

ought to

had better

 

eat less.

study hard.

shouldn’t

 

eat anything fat.

shouldn’t have

 

done that.

told a lie.

 

HABIT 

He

will

used to

would

 

speak too slowly.

get up early when he was at a student.

PREFERENCES 

I

would rather

 

go by bus.

you went by train.

have dogs than cats.

PROBABILITY 

She

may

must

should

 

be angry.

be at home.

be sleeping.

 

 

EXPECTATION 

DEDUCTION 

He

She

Ali

Mary

ought to

should

will

 

Come back by noon.

answer the questions.

win the reward.

must

 

be sleeping.

be tired.

should be

should have

 

arriving here now.

arrived here by tomorrow.

DETERMINATION  

WILLINGNESS 

I

will

would like to

 

do my best to get a licence..

live as I like.

won’t

shall not

will never

 

cause another accident again.

You

He

will

 

stay at the hotel.

 

Will

you

do the homework this weekend?

 

ABILITY 

I

can

am able to

 

do it by myself.

could

was able to

 

do it by myself when I was a child.

ORDERS 

You

can / must

 

do it as I have told you.

are to

shall

mustn’t

 

 

try it again.

 

Do it again,

will

you?

 

 

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